CAR T-cell therapy is the engineering of a patient’s T cells, a type of white blood cell. A small portion of these cells are collected, from a patient’s blood sample, and re-engineered to produce chimeric antigen receptors (CAR’s) on the cell surface.
The chimeric antigen receptors give T cells the ability to target cancer cells. They comprise two specific components: one, an antibody fragment allowing CARs to identify targets on the cancer cell surface; and the second, creates signals that activate T cells to attack cancer cells. Hence, CAR T-cells. These cells are then expanded and reinjected into the patient where they multiply and seek out and attack cancer cells throughout the body.